Roslyn Layton and Stanford University Law School’s Barbara van Schewick debated the impact of zero rating on competition among application and content providers. The debate was noteworthy for more than just the icy weather conditions that necessitated panelists unable to present in person to video stream themselves in. Layton argued that zero rating allows competing providers to differentiate their offerings from established providers. In this way, new entrants can attract users in a crowded marketplace where existing providers have already cultivated application-usage habits and preferences. Layton cited strong advocacy for zero rating by small ISP entrants as evidence that it facilitates, more than harms, competitive entry.